Introduction Personality assessment is perhaps more an art form than a science. In an attempt to render it as objective and standardized as possible, generations of clinicians came up with psychological tests and structured interviews. These are administered under similar conditions and use identical stimuli to elicit information from respondents.
Saul McLeodpublished Interviews are different from questionnaires as they involve social interaction.
Unlike questionnaires researchers need training in how to interview which costs money. Researchers can ask different types of questions which in turn generate different types of data. For example, closed questions provide people with a fixed set of responses, whereas open questions allow people to express what they think in their own words.
Sometimes researchers use an interview schedule. This is a set of prepared questions designed to be asked exactly as worded. Interviews schedules have a standardised format which means the same questions are asked to each interviewee in the same order.
Quite often interviews will be recorded by the researcher and the data written up as a transcript a written account of interview questions and answers which can be analyzed at a later date. The interviewer must ensure that they take special care when interviewing vulnerable groups, such as the children.
For example, children have a limited attention span and for this reason lengthy interviews should be avoided. Also the language the interviewer uses should be appropriate to the vocabulary of the group of people being studied.
It should be noted that interviews may not be the best method to use for researching sensitive topics e. Interviews take many forms, some very informal, others more structured. Structured Interview This is also known as a formal interview like a job interview. These are based on structured, closed-ended questions.
Structured interviews are easy to replicate as a fixed set of closed questions are used, which are easy to quantify — this means it is easy to test for reliability. Structured interviews are fairly quick to conduct which means that many interviews can take place within a short amount of time.
This means a large sample can be obtained resulting in the findings being representative and having the ability to be generalized to a large population. Structure interviews are not flexible. This means new questions cannot be asked impromptu i. The answers from structured interviews lack detail as only closed questions are asked which generates quantitative data.
They are sometimes called informal interviews. An interview schedule might not be used, and even if one is used, they will contain open-ended questions that can be asked in any order. The interview can deviate from the interview schedule. Unstructured interviews generate qualitative data through the use of open questions.
This allows the respondent to talk in some depth, choosing their own words.
It can be time consuming to conduct an unstructured interview and analyze the qualitative data using methods such as thematic analysis. Employing and training interviewers is expensive, and not as cheap as collecting data via questionnaires.
For example, certain skills may be needed by the interviewer.
This role of the interviewer is to make sure the group interact with each other and do not drift off topic. A researcher must be highly skilled to conduct a group interview.
For example, certain skills may be needed by the interviewer including the ability to establish rapport and knowing when to probe.
Group interviews generate qualitative data through the use of open questions. This allows the respondents to talk in some depth, choosing their own words. They also have increased validity because some participants may feel more comfortable being with others as they are used to talking in groups in real life i.
The researcher must ensure that they keep all the interviewees details confidential and respect their privacy. This is difficult when using a group interview. For example, the researcher cannot guarantee that the other people in the group will keep information private.
Group interviews are less reliable as they use open questions and may deviate from the interview schedule making them difficult to repeat.
Group interviews may sometimes lack validity as participants may lie to impress the other group members. They may conform to peer pressure and give false answers. The Interviewer Effect Because an interview is a social interaction the appearance or behavior of the interviewer may influence the answers of the respondent.
This is a problem as it can bias the results of the study and make them invalid.Unstructured interviews are very valid comparatively to structured interviews because of the thorough understanding of the concept as well as the interviewer will be able to .
Advantages of Projective Tests: Projective tests have created many debates and controversies among the experts – because at times the results may vary as compared to the personality of the person.
But the fact is that these tests have proved to be positive to a large extent. Better Interviews. Advocates argue that personality tests help employers conduct more robust job plombier-nemours.com managers have a better idea of what to address, such as a candidate's soft skills like troubleshooting, problem-solving, time management, self-confidence, flexibility, organization, communication and work ethic, suggests the human resources consulting firm Helios HR.
Assessment & Selection Structured Interviews A structured interview is an assessment method designed to measure job-related competencies of candidates by systematically inquiring about their behavior in past experiences and/or their proposed behavior in hypothetical situations.
Employee personality tests may seem a bit outdated, but in today’s world, where the number of job applicants far outweighs the number of openings, more and more business owners are turning to.
structured clinical interview for DSM 4 disorders: semi-structured, axis 1 and 2 disorders, look at current and past bxs, considered a branching interview- .