Two theories on the formation of personalities were developed by neurologist Sigmund Freud and psychologist Carl Rogers.
Saul McLeodpublished The term self-concept is a general term used to refer to how someone thinks about, evaluates or perceives themselves. To be aware of oneself is to have a concept of oneself. Baumeister provides the following self-concept definition: The self-concept is an important term for both social and humanistic psychology.
Lewis suggests that development of a concept of self has two aspects: The child realizes that they exist as a separate entity from others and that they continue to exist over time and space. According to Lewis awareness of the existential self begins as young as two to three months old and arises in part due to the relation the child has with the world.
For example, the child smiles and someone smiles back, or the child touches a mobile and sees it move.
Just as other objects including people have properties that can be experienced big, small, red, smooth and so on so the child is becoming aware of him or her self as an object which can be experienced and which has properties.
The self too can be put into categories such as age, gender, size or skill. Later, self-description also begins to include reference to internal psychological traits, comparative evaluations and to how others see them.
Carl Rogers believes that the self-concept has three different components: Indeed a person with anorexia who is thin may have a self image in which the person believes they are fat. Kuhn investigated the self-image by using The Twenty Statements Test.
He found that the responses could be divided into two major groups. These were social roles external or objective aspects of oneself such as son, teacher, friend and personality traits internal or affective aspects of oneself such as gregarious, impatient, humorous.
We are all social beings whose behavior is shaped to some extent by the roles we play. Such roles as student, housewife, or member of the football team not only help others to recognize us but also help us to know what is expected of us in various situations.
These are the third dimension of our self-descriptions. Typically young people describe themselves more in terms of personal traits, whereas older people feel defined to a greater extent by their social roles. Self-esteem the extent to which you value yourself Self-esteem also known as self-worth refers to the extent to which we like accept or approve of ourselves, or how much we value ourselves.
Self-esteem always involves a degree of evaluation and we may have either a positive or a negative view of ourselves. For example, Harrill Self Esteem Inventory is a questionnaire comprising 15 statements about a range of interest.
Morse and Gergen showed that in uncertain or anxiety-arousing situations our self-esteem may change rapidly. Participants were waiting for a job interview in a waiting room. They were sat with another candidate a confederate of the experimenter in one of two conditions: Clean - dressed in a smart suit, carrying a briefcase opened to reveal a slide rule and books.
Dirty - dressed in an old T-shirt and jeans, slouched over a cheap sex novel. Self-esteem of participants with Mr. Dirty increased whilst those with Mr.Both Freud and Rogers talk about innate drives, such as Freud’s id and Rogers’s organismic self.
Like Freud, Rogers developed his theory and ideas through emotionally troubled people. One of the key similarities between these two theorists is the period in which they produced their ideas, they date back a . Famous psychological theorists, Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers, possibly two of the greatest thinkers of our time, both made much advancement in the field of .
Rogers theory is very different than Freud's. He sees people as essentially good or healthy. In other words, he sees mental health as the standard development of life, and he sees mental illness, criminality, and other human troubles, as alterations of that normal tendency (3).
Hidden Personalities according to Freud and Rogers Personality is a complex phenomenon within psychology. Sigmund Freud (–) and Carl Rogers (–) are widely recognised as two of the most influential psychotherapists of the twentieth century (Ziegler ).
Clarifying and Re-mystifying Transference, Counter-Transference and Co-transference. A Guide to avoiding Procrustean Psychotherapy.
By developing Jung's Cross Diagram (inspired by an Alchemical woodcut) this paper clarifies the distinct processes of transference, counter-transference and co-transference. Wilhelm Reich (/ r aɪ x /; German: ; 24 March – 3 November ) was an Austrian doctor of medicine and psychoanalyst, a member of the second generation of analysts after Sigmund Freud.
The author of several influential books, most notably Character Analysis (), The Mass Psychology of Fascism (), and The Sexual Revolution .