However, much has happened since it went up, including the Blogger outage.
What the Board expects you to know: Risk factors in the development of addiction, including genetic vulnerability, stress, personality, family influences and peers. Explanations for nicotine addiction: Explanations for gambling addiction: Most of these only consider addiction to drugs chemical addictionfor example: However, loss of control is subjective and raises ethical issues since it suggests a certain level of culpability and blame.
To fully understand the process of addiction we need to consider the full range of psychological, biological, social and cultural variables, as well as consider the individual. Behavioural addictions Can behavioural addictions such as gambling be classified similarly to chemical addiction?
Clinical criteria of addiction Carnes A behaviour that is out of control Severe consequences Inability to stop despite these consequences Persistent pursuit of self-destructive or risky behaviour Desire to stop the behaviour Use of the behaviour as a coping strategy Increasing levels of the behaviour needed to get the same effect tolerance Lots of time spent both in trying to engage in the behaviour as well as recovery Severe mood changes when carrying out the behaviour Social, occupational, and recreational activities sacrificed Characteristics of an addiction Griffiths believes there to be six main characteristics to an addiction.
The Board has condensed these into the following: Physical and Psychological Dependence Physical dependence centres on the withdrawal symptoms experienced when the behavior or the drug stops. In fact it is only when these symptoms are experienced that we can be certain that physical dependence has occurred.
Generally these include anxiety, pain, irritability and shaking. Psychological dependence or salience when the behaviour becomes the most important thing to the person. From the moment the addict wakes up their thinking is dominated by their next fix.
Alcohol and nicotine addicts tend not to be so obvious in this regard, since they are able to combine their addiction with other behaviours in social settings.
However, once deprived of their fix, salience becomes far more apparent. Tolerance Usually associated with chemical addiction such as alcohol or heroin, this one can also be applied to behaviours. Basically the addict needs bigger and bigger hits to get the same effect as they did initially with smaller amounts.
A gambler will need to take bigger risks and place larger bets. There is also cross-tolerance when tolerance to one chemical such as alcohol or nicotine results in larger doses of other chemicals, including medication. The best example is alcoholics who need larger doses of anaesthetic to render them unconscious.
Withdrawal Syndrome Refers to the collection of symptoms that are experienced when the addiction is not being fed. Essentially these are the opposite of what the drug itself creates and usually involve pain, stress and anxiety.
This collection of symptoms provides the motivation for maintenance via the process of negative reinforcement. The addict gets a rush or buzz when engaged in the behaviour.
The addict is also able to use their behaviour to bring about a mood change. Interestingly, the same chemical or behaviour can alter mood in different directions depending on time or setting.
Nicotine can stimulate in the morning or relax before sleep. The pursuit of short term pleasure can cause conflict with other; parents, spouse, friends and can also result in conflict within the person. Griffiths believes that all six need to be present for a diagnosis of addiction.
Addiction The main thrust of this topic is synoptic and looks, yet again, at the main theoretical approaches or perspectives to psychology:Exposure device for the students. An exposure device with a special antenna placed on students zippers was used for generating the EMF (1 W peak output power and mW/cm 2 power density), and the exposure emission was maintained at GHz and 5.o GHz with a pulse repetition frequency of Hz for days a year for hours at school and at home on the abdomen.
Advertising is a marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.: Sponsors of advertising are typically businesses wishing to promote their products or services. Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser pays for and has control over the message.
Rae West 20th August Some people believe that whites need to reunite as Christian communities as part of the process of opposing so-called 'Jews'. Or to return to what they think was a comfortable, better life as Christians. As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from plombier-nemours.com Notes on nootropics I tried, and my experiments.
After Rockefeller’s unceremonious ejection, the yacht was then buzzed by Blackhawk helicopters before French fighter jets gave a warning pass overhead, whereupon the helicopters retreated.